Anatomy Lecture Two

Anatomy Lecture Two

Q. Write down about stomach, small intestine and large intestine.
Stomach Parts: Fundus, body and pyloric parts.
Small Intestine: Duodenum, jejunum and ileum.
Large intestine: Caecum,vermiform appendix,ascending colon,transverse colon,descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum and anal canal.
Q. What is stomach with diagram?
                                         oesophagus

                                                         Body

pyloric orifice


Q. What the different parts of stomach its blood supply.
Ans: Stomach is a “J” shaped most dilated part of the gastro-intestinal tract.
It has two orifices:
Cardiac Orifice:
The upper one which joined with the lower end of oesophagus.
Pyloric orifice:
The lower one which opened into the duodenum.
Parts:
Fundus ( the part above the cardiac orifice), body (largest region) and pyloric part ( the distal end of stomach).
Two curvatures:
Greater curvature ( convex and form left border) and lesser curvature (concave and form the right border).
Blood Supply:
1.     Left gastric artery.
2.     Right gastric artery.
3.     Left  gastro- epileptic artery.
4.     Right gastro –epileptic artery.
5.     Short gastric artery.
  Q. Write short note on stomach bed.
Ans: The posterior surface of the stomach is related to a number of structures which together form the stomach bed.
1.     The diaphragm.
2.     Left kidney
3.     Left supra renal gland.
4.     Transverse meso-colon.
5.     Pancreas
6.     Spleen
7.     Splenic artery
8.     Splenic flexure of the colon.
Q. What is Brunner’s gland? Give its importance. What is duodenal cap?
Brunner’s Gland:
It is a compound racemose type of gland in the sub mucous layer of duodenum.
Importance:
Brunner’s glands secrete mucous which is alkaline in nature. This mucous:
1.     Protects the duodenal mucous membrane against the effect of gastric juice.
2.     Brings the intestinal contents to the optimum PH for the action of pancreatic enzyme.
Duodenal Cap:
It is a triangular radio- opaque shadow which may be observed in the first part of duodenum after barium meal x-ray. This may be distorted in peptic ulcer or inmalignant growth of duodenum.
Q. What is biliary tree/ tract? Mention the parts of biliary apparatus.
Biliary tree/tract:
It is the duct system for the passage or conducting the bile from liver to duodenum connecting with gall bladder on its way. The all parts of this tree are called biliary apparatus.
It has main two parts:
a.     Intra –hepatic part(inside the liver)
b.     Extra –hepatic part( outside the liver)
Intra hepatic part:
a.     Bile canaliculi
b.     Bile ductules.
c.      Right and lest hepatic ducts.
Extra hepatic part:
a.     Common hepatic duct.
b.     Gall Bladder
c.      Cystic duct.
d.     Common bile duct.
Q. Write short note on gall bladder.
Gall bladder:
It is a pear shaped sac lying in a fossa, on the visceral surface of the right lobe of liver.
Q. What is knee cap? What are its function?
Knee cap:
It is also called patella. It is the largest sesamoid bone of the body developed in the tendon of quadriceps femoris muscle. It is associated with knee joint.
Function:
1.     It protects the knee joint and strengthen the tendon.
2.     By contraction of this muscle it increases the strength (extend) of the leg.
Q. Write short note about pelvic cavity?
Pelvic Cavity:
The cavity formed by the two hip bones, the sacrum and the coccyx and it is called the pelvis.
Division:
The pelvis is divided into upper and lower parts by the pelvis brim.
The greater or false pelvis is the upper part of the pelvis. The lesser or true pelvis is the lower part of the pelvis.
Contents:
The false pelvis helps to support the abdominal viscera. The true Pelvis Forms a deep “Bowl” containing the pelvis organs: Urinary bladder,rectum, anal canal, genital organs.










Anatomy Lecture Two

Q. Write down about stomach, small intestine and large intestine.
Stomach Parts: Fundus, body and pyloric parts.
Small Intestine: Duodenum, jejunum and ileum.
Large intestine: Caecum,vermiform appendix,ascending colon,transverse colon,descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum and anal canal.
Q. What is stomach with diagram?

                                         oesophagus

                                                         Body

pyloric orifice


Q. What the different parts of stomach its blood supply.
Ans: Stomach is a “J” shaped most dilated part of the gastro-intestinal tract.
It has two orifices:
Cardiac Orifice:
The upper one which joined with the lower end of oesophagus.
Pyloric orifice:
The lower one which opened into the duodenum.
Parts:
Fundus ( the part above the cardiac orifice), body (largest region) and pyloric part ( the distal end of stomach).
Two curvatures:
Greater curvature ( convex and form left border) and lesser curvature (concave and form the right border).
Blood Supply:
1.     Left gastric artery.
2.     Right gastric artery.
3.     Left  gastro- epileptic artery.
4.     Right gastro –epileptic artery.
5.     Short gastric artery.
  Q. Write short note on stomach bed.
Ans: The posterior surface of the stomach is related to a number of structures which together form the stomach bed.
1.     The diaphragm.
2.     Left kidney
3.     Left supra renal gland.
4.     Transverse meso-colon.
5.     Pancreas
6.     Spleen
7.     Splenic artery
8.     Splenic flexure of the colon.
Q. What is Brunner’s gland? Give its importance. What is duodenal cap?
Brunner’s Gland:
It is a compound racemose type of gland in the sub mucous layer of duodenum.
Importance:
Brunner’s glands secrete mucous which is alkaline in nature. This mucous:
1.     Protects the duodenal mucous membrane against the effect of gastric juice.
2.     Brings the intestinal contents to the optimum PH for the action of pancreatic enzyme.
Duodenal Cap:
It is a triangular radio- opaque shadow which may be observed in the first part of duodenum after barium meal x-ray. This may be distorted in peptic ulcer or inmalignant growth of duodenum.
Q. What is biliary tree/ tract? Mention the parts of biliary apparatus.
Biliary tree/tract:
It is the duct system for the passage or conducting the bile from liver to duodenum connecting with gall bladder on its way. The all parts of this tree are called biliary apparatus.
It has main two parts:
a.     Intra –hepatic part(inside the liver)
b.     Extra –hepatic part( outside the liver)
Intra hepatic part:
a.     Bile canaliculi
b.     Bile ductules.
c.      Right and lest hepatic ducts.
Extra hepatic part:
a.     Common hepatic duct.
b.     Gall Bladder
c.      Cystic duct.
d.     Common bile duct.
Q. Write short note on gall bladder.
Gall bladder:
It is a pear shaped sac lying in a fossa, on the visceral surface of the right lobe of liver.
Q. What is knee cap? What are its function?
Knee cap:
It is also called patella. It is the largest sesamoid bone of the body developed in the tendon of quadriceps femoris muscle. It is associated with knee joint.
Function:
1.     It protects the knee joint and strengthen the tendon.
2.     By contraction of this muscle it increases the strength (extend) of the leg.
Q. Write short note about pelvic cavity?
Pelvic Cavity:
The cavity formed by the two hip bones, the sacrum and the coccyx and it is called the pelvis.
Division:
The pelvis is divided into upper and lower parts by the pelvis brim.
The greater or false pelvis is the upper part of the pelvis. The lesser or true pelvis is the lower part of the pelvis.
Contents:
The false pelvis helps to support the abdominal viscera. The true Pelvis Forms a deep “Bowl” containing the pelvis organs: Urinary bladder,rectum, anal canal, genital organs.