Anatomy Lecture Two

Anatomy Lecture Two

Q. Write down about stomach, small intestine and large intestine.
Stomach Parts: Fundus, body and pyloric parts.
Small Intestine: Duodenum, jejunum and ileum.
Large intestine: Caecum,vermiform appendix,ascending colon,transverse colon,descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum and anal canal.
Q. What is stomach with diagram?
                                         oesophagus

                                                         Body

pyloric orifice


Q. What the different parts of stomach its blood supply.
Ans: Stomach is a “J” shaped most dilated part of the gastro-intestinal tract.
It has two orifices:
Cardiac Orifice:
The upper one which joined with the lower end of oesophagus.
Pyloric orifice:
The lower one which opened into the duodenum.
Parts:
Fundus ( the part above the cardiac orifice), body (largest region) and pyloric part ( the distal end of stomach).
Two curvatures:
Greater curvature ( convex and form left border) and lesser curvature (concave and form the right border).
Blood Supply:
1.     Left gastric artery.
2.     Right gastric artery.
3.     Left  gastro- epileptic artery.
4.     Right gastro –epileptic artery.
5.     Short gastric artery.
  Q. Write short note on stomach bed.
Ans: The posterior surface of the stomach is related to a number of structures which together form the stomach bed.
1.     The diaphragm.
2.     Left kidney
3.     Left supra renal gland.
4.     Transverse meso-colon.
5.     Pancreas
6.     Spleen
7.     Splenic artery
8.     Splenic flexure of the colon.
Q. What is Brunner’s gland? Give its importance. What is duodenal cap?
Brunner’s Gland:
It is a compound racemose type of gland in the sub mucous layer of duodenum.
Importance:
Brunner’s glands secrete mucous which is alkaline in nature. This mucous:
1.     Protects the duodenal mucous membrane against the effect of gastric juice.
2.     Brings the intestinal contents to the optimum PH for the action of pancreatic enzyme.
Duodenal Cap:
It is a triangular radio- opaque shadow which may be observed in the first part of duodenum after barium meal x-ray. This may be distorted in peptic ulcer or inmalignant growth of duodenum.
Q. What is biliary tree/ tract? Mention the parts of biliary apparatus.
Biliary tree/tract:
It is the duct system for the passage or conducting the bile from liver to duodenum connecting with gall bladder on its way. The all parts of this tree are called biliary apparatus.
It has main two parts:
a.     Intra –hepatic part(inside the liver)
b.     Extra –hepatic part( outside the liver)
Intra hepatic part:
a.     Bile canaliculi
b.     Bile ductules.
c.      Right and lest hepatic ducts.
Extra hepatic part:
a.     Common hepatic duct.
b.     Gall Bladder
c.      Cystic duct.
d.     Common bile duct.
Q. Write short note on gall bladder.
Gall bladder:
It is a pear shaped sac lying in a fossa, on the visceral surface of the right lobe of liver.
Q. What is knee cap? What are its function?
Knee cap:
It is also called patella. It is the largest sesamoid bone of the body developed in the tendon of quadriceps femoris muscle. It is associated with knee joint.
Function:
1.     It protects the knee joint and strengthen the tendon.
2.     By contraction of this muscle it increases the strength (extend) of the leg.
Q. Write short note about pelvic cavity?
Pelvic Cavity:
The cavity formed by the two hip bones, the sacrum and the coccyx and it is called the pelvis.
Division:
The pelvis is divided into upper and lower parts by the pelvis brim.
The greater or false pelvis is the upper part of the pelvis. The lesser or true pelvis is the lower part of the pelvis.
Contents:
The false pelvis helps to support the abdominal viscera. The true Pelvis Forms a deep “Bowl” containing the pelvis organs: Urinary bladder,rectum, anal canal, genital organs.










Anatomy Lecture Two

Q. Write down about stomach, small intestine and large intestine.
Stomach Parts: Fundus, body and pyloric parts.
Small Intestine: Duodenum, jejunum and ileum.
Large intestine: Caecum,vermiform appendix,ascending colon,transverse colon,descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum and anal canal.
Q. What is stomach with diagram?

                                         oesophagus

                                                         Body

pyloric orifice


Q. What the different parts of stomach its blood supply.
Ans: Stomach is a “J” shaped most dilated part of the gastro-intestinal tract.
It has two orifices:
Cardiac Orifice:
The upper one which joined with the lower end of oesophagus.
Pyloric orifice:
The lower one which opened into the duodenum.
Parts:
Fundus ( the part above the cardiac orifice), body (largest region) and pyloric part ( the distal end of stomach).
Two curvatures:
Greater curvature ( convex and form left border) and lesser curvature (concave and form the right border).
Blood Supply:
1.     Left gastric artery.
2.     Right gastric artery.
3.     Left  gastro- epileptic artery.
4.     Right gastro –epileptic artery.
5.     Short gastric artery.
  Q. Write short note on stomach bed.
Ans: The posterior surface of the stomach is related to a number of structures which together form the stomach bed.
1.     The diaphragm.
2.     Left kidney
3.     Left supra renal gland.
4.     Transverse meso-colon.
5.     Pancreas
6.     Spleen
7.     Splenic artery
8.     Splenic flexure of the colon.
Q. What is Brunner’s gland? Give its importance. What is duodenal cap?
Brunner’s Gland:
It is a compound racemose type of gland in the sub mucous layer of duodenum.
Importance:
Brunner’s glands secrete mucous which is alkaline in nature. This mucous:
1.     Protects the duodenal mucous membrane against the effect of gastric juice.
2.     Brings the intestinal contents to the optimum PH for the action of pancreatic enzyme.
Duodenal Cap:
It is a triangular radio- opaque shadow which may be observed in the first part of duodenum after barium meal x-ray. This may be distorted in peptic ulcer or inmalignant growth of duodenum.
Q. What is biliary tree/ tract? Mention the parts of biliary apparatus.
Biliary tree/tract:
It is the duct system for the passage or conducting the bile from liver to duodenum connecting with gall bladder on its way. The all parts of this tree are called biliary apparatus.
It has main two parts:
a.     Intra –hepatic part(inside the liver)
b.     Extra –hepatic part( outside the liver)
Intra hepatic part:
a.     Bile canaliculi
b.     Bile ductules.
c.      Right and lest hepatic ducts.
Extra hepatic part:
a.     Common hepatic duct.
b.     Gall Bladder
c.      Cystic duct.
d.     Common bile duct.
Q. Write short note on gall bladder.
Gall bladder:
It is a pear shaped sac lying in a fossa, on the visceral surface of the right lobe of liver.
Q. What is knee cap? What are its function?
Knee cap:
It is also called patella. It is the largest sesamoid bone of the body developed in the tendon of quadriceps femoris muscle. It is associated with knee joint.
Function:
1.     It protects the knee joint and strengthen the tendon.
2.     By contraction of this muscle it increases the strength (extend) of the leg.
Q. Write short note about pelvic cavity?
Pelvic Cavity:
The cavity formed by the two hip bones, the sacrum and the coccyx and it is called the pelvis.
Division:
The pelvis is divided into upper and lower parts by the pelvis brim.
The greater or false pelvis is the upper part of the pelvis. The lesser or true pelvis is the lower part of the pelvis.
Contents:
The false pelvis helps to support the abdominal viscera. The true Pelvis Forms a deep “Bowl” containing the pelvis organs: Urinary bladder,rectum, anal canal, genital organs.










Anatomy Lecture Two

                                                               Anatomy
Q. What is surfactant?
Ans: Surfactant is a complex mixture of Phospholipids ,proteins and irons, produced by the alveolar epithelial cells. It reduces surface tension and prevents alveolar walls collapsing during respiration.
Q. Define pleura and give its attachment and importance?
Definition: It is a thin double layer of serous membrane like two sacs in which lung pushed into.
Attachment of pleura :
Two layers of pleura:
1.     Visceral Pleura: Attached to the lung surface except hilum.
2.     Parietal Pleura: Attached to the inside of the thoracic cavity wall and the superior surface of the diaphragm. The Space between two layers called pleural cavity and contains a thin layer of serous fluid.
Importance:
1.     The lubricating secretion of pleural fluid helps the lungs to guide easily over the thoracic wall during breathing movement.
2.     It helps to devide the thoracic cavity into three chambers/mediastinum.(Central –contains heart, two lateral –contains two lungs). This arrangement helps to prevent one mobile organ (heart or lung) from interfering with another.
3.     The pleura also limit the spread of local infections.
Q. What is Pericardium and importance of it?
Definition: It is a fibro- serous sac which encloses the heart and roots of great vessels. It consist of outer tough connective tissue layer called fibrous pericardium which forms the boundaries of the middle mediastinum. The inner two layered serous parts are outer parietal one fused with fibrous layer and inner visceral one adheres to the heart.
Importance:
                 The space between two serous layers called pericardial cavity and contains a thin film of serous fluid which allows the heart to move smoothly.
Q. What is peritoneum?
Ans:  Peritoneum: It is a large serous membrane lining the walls of the abdominal cavity and covers the viscera.
Layers: Outer parietal peritoneum which the abdominal wall and inner visceral layer which covers the viscera in abdominal and pelvic cavity.
Functions:
1.     It provides a slippery surface for free movement of abdominal viscera.
2.     It provides a physical barrier to local spread of infection.
3.     It can absorb fluid from the peritoneal cavity.
4.     Peritoneal folds store large amount of fat.
Q. What is an inter-costal space? What are its contents?
Ans: The gap between two adjacent ribs is called inter- costal space.
Contents:
1.     Inter- costal vein .
2.     Inter- costal artery.
3.     Inter- costal nerves.
4.     Lymphatic.
Q. Define mediastinum/what is mediastinum?
Ans: The mediastinum is the middle or central space in the thoracic cavity between the lungs.
Q. Classification of mediastinum?
Ans:
1.     Superior mediastinum
2.     Inferior mediastinum
3.     Anterior mediastinum
4.     Middle mediastinum
5.     Posterior mediastinum.
Superior mediastinum: It is the area above an imaginary line extending from the sternal angle ( the junction between the manubrium and the body sternum) to the inter vertebral disc between fourth and fifth thoracic vertebrae.
The area between that imaginary line is the inferior mediastinum.
Q. What are the contents of superior mediastinum.
Ans:
1.     Trachea and oesophagus
2.     Muscles
3.     Arteries: Arch of aorta, brchio-cephalic artery, left common carotid artery, left sub- clavian artery.
4.     Veins: Superior vena-cava ,brachio- cephalic vein.
5.     Nerves: vagus, phrenic, cardiac nerve.
6.     Thymus.
7.     Thoracic duct.
Q. What are the contents of middle mediastinum.
Ans:
1.     Heart enclosed in pericardium.
2.     Bifurcation of trachea and right and left principal bronchi.
3.     Arteries
4.     Veins
5.     Nerves
6.     Tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes.
Q. What are the contents of anterior mediastinum.
Ans:
1.     Terno- pericardial ligaments.
2.     Lymp nodes with lymphatics.
3.     Thymus
4.     Areolar tissue.
Q. What are the contents of posterior mediastinum.
Ans:
1.     Oesophagus.
2.     Descending thoracic aorta and its branches.
3.     Veins
4.     Nerves: Vagus nerve, splanchnic nerve.
5.     Lymph nodes with lymphatics.
Q. What are Visceral organs/ Viscera?
Ans: Viscera:These are those that are located within the anterior body cavities.
1.     Thoracic cavity contains the heart and 2 lungs.
2.     Abdominal cavity contains the stomach; small and large intestine, spleen, liver and gall-bladder.
Q. What do you mean by body cavity?
Ans: Body cavities are those spaces in which organs are protected, separated and supported by associated membranes.
Principal body cavities are:
1.     Dorsal body cavities:
·        Cranial cavity and
·        Vertebral or spinal cavity.
2.     Ventral body cavity:
·        Thoracic cavity ( pleural and pericardial cavity and.
·        Abdomino- pelvical cavity (abdominal and pelvic cavity)
3.     Others:
·        Oral cavity ( in mouth)
·        Nasal cavity ( in nose)
·        Orbital cavity ( House of eyes)
·        Middle ear cavity ( Contains small bones in middle ear)
·        Synovial cavity within the capsules of freely moveable joints.
Q. What is diaphragm?
Ans: The diaphragm is a dome shaped musculo –tendinous structure which seperates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity.
Q. What is the serous cavity in the body?
Ans: The internal organs in the body require freedom to move. They are partially enclosed by a potential space to facilitate this movement. These spaces lined by serous membrane and contain a small amount of lubricating fluid which is secredted from that lining membrane. e.g.
1.     Pleural cavity: Permits movement of the lungs during breathings.
2.     Pericardial cavity: Permits movement of the intestine during digestion.
Q. Define mediastinum.
Ans: The mediastinum is the middle or central space in the thoracic cavity between the lungs.
Q. Classification of mediastinum?
1. Superior mediastinum
2. Inferior mediastinum
Q. What are the contents of abdominal cavity?
Ans:
1.     Abdominal part of oesophagus.
2.     Stomach, small intestine and most of the large intestine.
3.     Liver, gall bladder, bile ducts and pancreas.
4.     Spleen.
5.     Two kidneys and the upper part of the ureters.
6.     Two adrenal (supra renal) glands.
7.     Numerous blood vessels, lymph vessels and nerves.
8.     Lymph nodes.

                                       Functions of muscular system
  1. Produces skeletal movement .
  2. Maintains posture and body system.
  3. Support soft tissues.
  4. Guards entrance and exits through mouth, anus and urethal opening.
  5. Maintains body temperature.

                             Muscle attachment
Origin: it is the beginning of the muscle which remains stationary.
Insertion: it is the other end which moves during contraction.
                            
                          Ways of muscular attachment:
Muscle may be attached to bone in three different way –
1.     Directly to the perioustinum.
2.     By means of a tendon.
3.     With an aponeurosis.
        Tendon:
       A tendon is a band or cord of collagen fibres that provides attachment to the bone.
Aponeurosis:
An aponeurosis is a broad flat sheet of densely arranged collagen fibres that attached a muscle to the bone or another muscle.
                                               Muscle grouping:
Muscle can be grouped by their primary actions-
1.     Prime mover or agonist.
It is a muscle whose contraction is chiefly responsible for producing a particular movement.
Example:
01.The biceps brachi muscle is a prime mover that flexes the elbow.
02.Antagonists:  are prime movers whose actions appose that of the agonist under consideration.
The  biceps brachi muscle is a prime mover that extends the elbow. It is therefore an antagonists of the biceps brachi.
03.Synergists : are the muscle that assist the agonist to reduce undesired action or unnecessary movement.
Q. What is diaphragm?
Ans: The diaphragm is a dome shaped musculo – tendinous structure which separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity.
Attachment:
The diaphragm is attached peripherally to
1.     The xiphoid process of the sternum.
2.     The costal margin of the thoracic wall.
3.     The ends of ribs x1 and x11.
4.     Vertebrae of the lumber region. (Right –L1-3, Left L1-2)
5.     Medial and lateral arculate ligaments.
Q. What are the large opening of the diaphragm?
01. Aortic hiatus:  it lies in the posterior part of the diaphragm just in front of the T 12 Vertebral body.
It transmits:
1.     Aorta
2.     Thoracic duct
3.     Azygos vein
02. Oesophageal opening :
It is in the muscular part of the diaphragm at the level of vertebrae T10 just to the left of the aortic hiatus.
It transmits:
1.     Oesophagus
2.     Anterior and posterior vagal trunks.
3.     Oesophageal branch of left gastric artery.
4.     A few lymphatic vessels.

4.     Caval opening :
It is in the central tendon of the diaphragm at the level of vertebrae T8.
It transmits :
1.     The inferior vena cava.
2.     Right phrenic nerve.
 Q. What are the functions of different hormone.
Ans: Growth hormone:
It stimulates overall growth of the body and stimulates cartilage and bone growth. It also stimulates protein synthesis.
Thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH): it stimulates growth and ability of thyroid gland and secretion of thyroid hormone (T3 and T4).
Thyroxin (T4); Tri- iodothyronine (T 3):
It increases the rate of chemical reactions in most of the cells thus causes body metabolism. It increases the heat production in the body and promotes normal activity of the skeletal muscles, gastro-intestinal motility and secretion of digestive juices.
Para-thyroid hormone:
It controls serum calcium ion concentration by increasing calcium absorption by the gut and kidneys and releasing calcium from bones.
Insulin:
It promotes glucose uptake, storage and use mainly by muscles, adipose tissue and liver. Excess glucose is stored as glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscles. It promotes synthesis and storage of proteins. It promotes synthesis of fatty acids and storage of fat inadipose tissue.
Glucagones:
It increases synthesis and release of glucose from the liver into the body fluids.
Alimentary system:
Q. What is alimentary tract?
Ans:
It is the parts extended from mouth to anus with their associated glands. The collective name of digestive system.
Q. What is gastro intestinal tract?
Ans: It is the parts extended from stomach to anus with their associated glands.
Q. What are the parts of digestive system?
Ans: It has two parts:
1.     Alimentary tract:
Includes oral cavity, oro-pharynx, oesophagus,stomach,small intestine,large intestine,rectum and anal canal.
2.     Accessory organs:
Includes tongue, teeth,salivary glands,liver,pancreas,gall bladder and other digestive glands in the wall of digestive tract.
Q. What is digestion?
Ans: Digestion is a pathological process by which complex food particles are broken down into simple form suitable for absorption and subsequent utilization by body cells.
Digestion consists of :
1.     Mechanical break –down of food by chewing.
2.     Chemical digestion of food into small molecules by enzymes present in secretions produced by glands and accessory organs of the digestive system.
Q. What is the digestive juice?
The juices which are usually secreted from the glands of digestive tract and help in the digestion of food are called digestive juice.
These are:
1.     Saliva
2.     Gastric juice
3.     Pancreatic juice
4.     Intestinal secretions ( succus enterius).
5.     Bile
Q. What is the anatomy of tongue.
Ans: Tongue is a muscular organ situated in the floor of the mouth. It has a root, a tip and a body.
The root attached to the mandible and soft palate above and hyoid bone below.
There are test buds embedded between the papillae, responsible for sense of taste.
There are two types of muscles:
Intrinsic muscles perform all delicale movements of the tongue.
Extrinsic muscles attached tongue with the surrounding and perform the movements of tongue and helps mastication and swallowing.
Therefore the function of the tongue is :
Taste, speech, mastication and deglutition.
Q. What do you mean by salivary glands ?
Ans:
Salivary glands are a number of glandular structures that produce saliva. These are three pairs of salivary glands:
1.     Porotid glands (25% secretion) located on each side of the face below the external acoustic meatus. Contain amylase,maltase and IgA.
2.     Sub- mandibular glands (70% secretion).
3.     Sub- lingual glands ( 5% secretion).
Q. Write down about oesophagus.
It is the one part of alimentary tract between mouth and stomach.
Length: 25 cm.
Parts: Cervical part,Thoracic part and abdominal part.
Structure: Mucosa, sub-mucosa and muscular layer.
Q. Write down about stomach, small intestine and large intestine.
Stomach Parts: Fundus, body and pyloric parts.
Small Intestine: Duodenum, jejunum and ileum.
Large intestine: Caecum,vermiform appendix,ascending colon,transverse colon,descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum and anal canal.


Q. What the different parts of stomach its blood supply.
Ans: Stomach is a “J” shaped most dilated part of the gastro-intestinal tract.
It has two orifices:
Cardiac Orifice:
The upper one which joined with the lower end of oesophagus.
Pyloric orifice:
The lower one which opened into the duodenum.
Parts:
Fundus ( the part above the cardiac orifice), body (largest region) and pyloric part ( the distal end of stomach).
Two curvatures:
Greater curvature ( convex and form left border) and lesser curvature (concave and form the right border).
Blood Supply:
1.     Left gastric artery.
2.     Right gastric artery.
3.     Left  gastro- epileptic artery.
4.     Right gastro –epileptic artery.
5.     Short gastric artery.
  Q. Write short note on stomach bed.
Ans: The posterior surface of the stomach is related to a number of structures which together form the stomach bed.
1.     The diaphragm.
2.     Left kidney
3.     Left supra renal gland.
4.     Transverse meso-colon.
5.     Pancreas
6.     Spleen
7.     Splenic artery
8.     Splenic flexure of the colon.
Q. What is Brunner’s gland? Give its importance. What is duodenal cap?
Brunner’s Gland:
It is a compound racemose type of gland in the sub mucous layer of duodenum.
Importance:
Brunner’s glands secrete mucous which is alkaline in nature. This mucous:
1.     Protects the duodenal mucous membrane against the effect of gastric juice.
2.     Brings the intestinal contents to the optimum PH for the action of pancreatic enzyme.
Duodenal Cap:
It is a triangular radio- opaque shadow which may be observed in the first part of duodenum after barium meal x-ray. This may be distorted in peptic ulcer or inmalignant growth of duodenum.
Q. What is biliary tree/ tract? Mention the parts of biliary apparatus.
Biliary tree/tract:
It is the duct system for the passage or conducting the bile from liver to duodenum connecting with gall bladder on its way. The all parts of this tree are called biliary apparatus.
It has main two parts:
a.     Intra –hepatic part(inside the liver)
b.     Extra –hepatic part( outside the liver)
Intra hepatic part:
a.     Bile canaliculi
b.     Bile ductules.
c.      Right and lest hepatic ducts.
Extra hepatic part:
a.     Common hepatic duct.
b.     Gall Bladder
c.      Cystic duct.
d.     Common bile duct.
Q. Write short note on gall bladder.
Gall bladder:
It is a pear shaped sac lying in a fossa, on the visceral surface of the right lobe of liver.
Q. What is knee cap? What are its function?
Knee cap:
It is also called patella. It is the largest sesamoid bone of the body developed in the tendon of quadriceps femoris muscle. It is associated with knee joint.
Function:
1.     It protects the knee joint and strengthen the tendon.
2.     By contraction of this muscle it increases the strength (extend) of the leg.
Q. Write short note about pelvic cavity?
Pelvic Cavity:
The cavity formed by the two hip bones, the sacrum and the coccyx and it is called the pelvis.
Division:
The pelvis is divided into upper and lower parts by the pelvis brim.
The greater or false pelvis is the upper part of the pelvis. The lesser or true pelvis is the lower part of the pelvis.
Contents:
The false pelvis helps to support the abdominal viscera. The true Pelvis Forms a deep “Bowl” containing the pelvis organs: Urinary bladder,rectum, anal canal, genital organs.